The Introduction of Technologies for Removing CO2

For the period from 1860 to 2010 (150 years), the energy sector of the world increased by 35 times and passed three “Energy Transition”. Energy Transition is a radical shift in the energy system from the existing model to the new paradigm. This is a complex and going beyond a simple replacement of one fuel source to another. In fact, Energy Transition includes changes in three interconnected measurements:

1. material elements of the energy system, which include technologies, infrastructure, markets, production equipment, consumer models, and distribution chains;
2. actors and their behavior, which includes new strategies and investment models;
3. Socio-technical regimes containing official rules and politics, as well as systems of thinking and beliefs and social practices.
Consequently, Energy Transition is multidimensional, complex, nonlinear, non -meterminated and very significant process. At the end of each Energy Transition, a crisis decline in energy demand is observed.

The conclusion from the study of the 150-year history of energy markets is that the demand for the energy of wind and sun changes as well as the demand for coal in the 19th century and for oil in the 20th century, and in the same way, there will probably be a demand for wind energy. And the sun is equally transformational and in demand in the 21st century. In 2020, the need for wind energy amounted to about 6% of the total world energy needs, at the same time, as solar energy, 3% of the final demand.
According to the UN program on the environment, the lack of access to energy supply and transformation systems is an obstacle to human and economic development. Three billion people use wood, coal, charcoal, or livestock waste for cooking and heating, which is the cause of the multi-ton emissions of greenhouse gases. Figure 1 depicts the leading countries in the world to eject greenhouse gases CO2.

Fig. 1. World statistics on the release of CO2 for 2020

Energy is the main factor in climate change; it accounts for about 60% of the general global emissions of greenhouse gases. Since 1990, global CO2 emissions have increased by more than 46 percent. Figure 2 depicts the dynamics of CO2 emissions in the world for the period 1990–2020 according to the ENERDATA.

Fig. 2. The dynamics of emissions of CO2 for the period 1990–2021 in the world

To date, hydropower (hydroelectric power station) is the largest renewable source of electricity (renewable power transmission), which provides 16% of the global electricity at competitive prices without emissions of greenhouse gas gas. The hydroelectric power station dominates the structure of the electric power industry in several countries, both developed and developing. Bioenergy today is the largest renewable energy source and provides 10% of the global supply of primary energy.

Fig. 3. The largest plant in the world to capture CO2, Carbon Engineering

Consequently, due to the severity of this problem with global warming, in this article, the authors propose a decrease in CO2 not by reducing the production of energy or industry, which will adversely affect the world economy, but by “capturing” CO2 from the atmosphere with special equipment, preserving it, as well as processing CO2. To achieve this goal, the authors provide several examples of existing technologies for “capture,” “preservation,” and “processing” of CO2, from turning CO2 into stone to “breathing seizures” and “oil return underground.” The goal of companies leading to the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere is to quickly expand the scale of “capture” of CO2, and some of them have already sold their CO2 removal services, such as Bill Gates, Swiss Re, Shopify, and Audi. The prices for removal of CO2, however, are “sky-high”—$600 (440 pounds) per ton of CO2 and above. Given that people emit about 36 billion tons of CO2 per year, it is problematic to solve this problem for the global community due to the unprofitability of this process.

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